《ROS精品入门》学习笔记五:ROS仿真

一.学习内容
本节课主要讲了一下内容:
1.ROS中的仿真工具stage的使用
2.ROS中Rviz的使用
二.学习讲义
这里写图片描述
这里写图片描述
这里写图片描述
三.学习笔记
1. 这一章相当于介绍了两个工具stage和rviz,比较好理解。如下图,stage仿真时stageros节点订阅了一些topic也发布了一些topic,我们通过自己写一些节点与其进行通信即可。比如,我们可以使用gmapping通过/base_scan的数据来建图,示例中也是通过这种方式(节点mystage)实现了碰到障碍物停止。
这里写图片描述
2. 教程中还演示了turtlebot在stage中的仿真,看了眼节点图,好复杂。。。倒是可以平常没事看看理解理解。话说提到仿真别人都会说gazebo很少提及stage,可能是功能比较简陋吧。
这里写图片描述
3.关于Rviz,作为一个显示工具,其核心功能就在于可以可视化各种各样的messages,这一点PPT的P8、9页有详细介绍。
四.相关源码
package目录树:

my_stage
--include
--src
   --my_stage.cpp
--CMakeLists.txt
--package.xml

源码:
my_stage.cpp:

#include<ros/ros.h>
#include<sensor_msgs/LaserScan.h>
#include<geometry_msgs/Twist.h>

class Stopper{
public:
    const static double FORWARD_SPEED_MPS=0.1;  //运动速度
    const static double MIN_SCAN_ANGLE_RAD=-30.0/180*M_PI; //最小角度
    const static double MAX_SCAN_ANGLE_RAD=30.0/180*M_PI;  //最大角度
    const static float MIN_PROXIMITY_RANGE_M=0.5;  //期望的最近距离
    Stopper();  //构造函数
    void startMoving();
private:
    ros::NodeHandle node;     //私有成员
    ros::Publisher commandPub;
    ros::Subscriber laserSub;
    bool keepMoving;       //指示器
    void moveForward();
    void scanCallback(const sensor_msgs::LaserScan::ConstPtr& scan);  //回调函数
};
//构造函数
Stopper::Stopper() {
    keepMoving=true;
    commandPub=node.advertise<geometry_msgs::Twist>("cmd_vel", 10);
    laserSub=node.subscribe("base_scan", 1, &Stopper::scanCallback, this);
}
//发布向前移动消息
void Stopper::moveForward(){
    geometry_msgs::Twist msg;
    msg.linear.x=FORWARD_SPEED_MPS;
    commandPub.publish(msg);
}
//回调函数,若最近距离小于指定值,更改keepMoving标志为False
void Stopper::scanCallback(const sensor_msgs::LaserScan::ConstPtr &scan) {
    int minIndex=ceil(MIN_SCAN_ANGLE_RAD-scan->angle_min)/scan->angle_increment;
    int maxIndex=floor(MAX_SCAN_ANGLE_RAD-scan->angle_min)/scan->angle_increment;
    float closestRange=scan->ranges[minIndex];
    for(int currIndex=minIndex+1; currIndex<=maxIndex; currIndex++) {
        if(scan->ranges[currIndex] < closestRange) {
            closestRange=scan->ranges[currIndex];
        }
    }
    ROS_INFO_STREAM("Closest_range: " << closestRange);
    if(closestRange<MIN_PROXIMITY_RANGE_M){
        ROS_INFO("Stop!");
        keepMoving=false;
    }
}
//开始移动,一直循环发送moveForward()直到keepMoving标志变为False
void Stopper::startMoving(){
    ros::Rate rate(10);
    ROS_INFO("start moving");
    while(ros::ok()&&keepMoving){
        moveForward();
        ros::spinOnce();
        rate.sleep();
    }
}

int main(int argc, char** argv){
    ros::init(argc, argv, "mystage");
    Stopper stopper;
    stopper.startMoving();
    return 0;
}

CMakeLists.txt:

cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 2.8.3)
project(my_stage)

## Find catkin macros and libraries
## if COMPONENTS list like find_package(catkin REQUIRED COMPONENTS xyz)
## is used, also find other catkin packages
find_package(catkin REQUIRED COMPONENTS
  roscpp
  std_msgs
)

## System dependencies are found with CMake's conventions
# find_package(Boost REQUIRED COMPONENTS system)


## Uncomment this if the package has a setup.py. This macro ensures
## modules and global scripts declared therein get installed
## See http://ros.org/doc/api/catkin/html/user_guide/setup_dot_py.html
# catkin_python_setup()

################################################
## Declare ROS messages, services and actions ##
################################################

## To declare and build messages, services or actions from within this
## package, follow these steps:
## * Let MSG_DEP_SET be the set of packages whose message types you use in
##   your messages/services/actions (e.g. std_msgs, actionlib_msgs, ...).
## * In the file package.xml:
##   * add a build_depend tag for "message_generation"
##   * add a build_depend and a run_depend tag for each package in MSG_DEP_SET
##   * If MSG_DEP_SET isn't empty the following dependency has been pulled in
##     but can be declared for certainty nonetheless:
##     * add a run_depend tag for "message_runtime"
## * In this file (CMakeLists.txt):
##   * add "message_generation" and every package in MSG_DEP_SET to
##     find_package(catkin REQUIRED COMPONENTS ...)
##   * add "message_runtime" and every package in MSG_DEP_SET to
##     catkin_package(CATKIN_DEPENDS ...)
##   * uncomment the add_*_files sections below as needed
##     and list every .msg/.srv/.action file to be processed
##   * uncomment the generate_messages entry below
##   * add every package in MSG_DEP_SET to generate_messages(DEPENDENCIES ...)

## Generate messages in the 'msg' folder
# add_message_files(
#   FILES
#   Message1.msg
#   Message2.msg
# )

## Generate services in the 'srv' folder
# add_service_files(
#   FILES
#   Service1.srv
#   Service2.srv
# )

## Generate actions in the 'action' folder
# add_action_files(
#   FILES
#   Action1.action
#   Action2.action
# )

## Generate added messages and services with any dependencies listed here
# generate_messages(
#   DEPENDENCIES
#   std_msgs
# )

################################################
## Declare ROS dynamic reconfigure parameters ##
################################################

## To declare and build dynamic reconfigure parameters within this
## package, follow these steps:
## * In the file package.xml:
##   * add a build_depend and a run_depend tag for "dynamic_reconfigure"
## * In this file (CMakeLists.txt):
##   * add "dynamic_reconfigure" to
##     find_package(catkin REQUIRED COMPONENTS ...)
##   * uncomment the "generate_dynamic_reconfigure_options" section below
##     and list every .cfg file to be processed

## Generate dynamic reconfigure parameters in the 'cfg' folder
# generate_dynamic_reconfigure_options(
#   cfg/DynReconf1.cfg
#   cfg/DynReconf2.cfg
# )

###################################
## catkin specific configuration ##
###################################
## The catkin_package macro generates cmake config files for your package
## Declare things to be passed to dependent projects
## INCLUDE_DIRS: uncomment this if you package contains header files
## LIBRARIES: libraries you create in this project that dependent projects also need
## CATKIN_DEPENDS: catkin_packages dependent projects also need
## DEPENDS: system dependencies of this project that dependent projects also need
catkin_package(
#  INCLUDE_DIRS include
#  LIBRARIES my_stage
#  CATKIN_DEPENDS roscpp std_msgs
#  DEPENDS system_lib
)

###########
## Build ##
###########

## Specify additional locations of header files
## Your package locations should be listed before other locations
# include_directories(include)
include_directories(
  ${catkin_INCLUDE_DIRS}
)

## Declare a C++ library
# add_library(my_stage
#   src/${PROJECT_NAME}/my_stage.cpp
# )

## Add cmake target dependencies of the library
## as an example, code may need to be generated before libraries
## either from message generation or dynamic reconfigure
# add_dependencies(my_stage ${${PROJECT_NAME}_EXPORTED_TARGETS} ${catkin_EXPORTED_TARGETS})

## Declare a C++ executable
 add_executable(my_stage src/my_stage.cpp)

## Add cmake target dependencies of the executable
## same as for the library above
# add_dependencies(my_stage_node ${${PROJECT_NAME}_EXPORTED_TARGETS} ${catkin_EXPORTED_TARGETS})

## Specify libraries to link a library or executable target against
 target_link_libraries(my_stage
   ${catkin_LIBRARIES}
 )

#############
## Install ##
#############

# all install targets should use catkin DESTINATION variables
# See http://ros.org/doc/api/catkin/html/adv_user_guide/variables.html

## Mark executable scripts (Python etc.) for installation
## in contrast to setup.py, you can choose the destination
# install(PROGRAMS
#   scripts/my_python_script
#   DESTINATION ${CATKIN_PACKAGE_BIN_DESTINATION}
# )

## Mark executables and/or libraries for installation
# install(TARGETS my_stage my_stage_node
#   ARCHIVE DESTINATION ${CATKIN_PACKAGE_LIB_DESTINATION}
#   LIBRARY DESTINATION ${CATKIN_PACKAGE_LIB_DESTINATION}
#   RUNTIME DESTINATION ${CATKIN_PACKAGE_BIN_DESTINATION}
# )

## Mark cpp header files for installation
# install(DIRECTORY include/${PROJECT_NAME}/
#   DESTINATION ${CATKIN_PACKAGE_INCLUDE_DESTINATION}
#   FILES_MATCHING PATTERN "*.h"
#   PATTERN ".svn" EXCLUDE
# )

## Mark other files for installation (e.g. launch and bag files, etc.)
# install(FILES
#   # myfile1
#   # myfile2
#   DESTINATION ${CATKIN_PACKAGE_SHARE_DESTINATION}
# )

#############
## Testing ##
#############

## Add gtest based cpp test target and link libraries
# catkin_add_gtest(${PROJECT_NAME}-test test/test_my_stage.cpp)
# if(TARGET ${PROJECT_NAME}-test)
#   target_link_libraries(${PROJECT_NAME}-test ${PROJECT_NAME})
# endif()

## Add folders to be run by python nosetests
# catkin_add_nosetests(test)

package.xml:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<package>
  <name>my_stage</name>
  <version>0.0.0</version>
  <description>The my_stage package</description>

  <!-- One maintainer tag required, multiple allowed, one person per tag --> 
  <!-- Example:  -->
  <!-- <maintainer email="jane.doe@example.com">Jane Doe</maintainer> -->
  <maintainer email="aicrobo@todo.todo">aicrobo</maintainer>


  <!-- One license tag required, multiple allowed, one license per tag -->
  <!-- Commonly used license strings: -->
  <!--   BSD, MIT, Boost Software License, GPLv2, GPLv3, LGPLv2.1, LGPLv3 -->
  <license>TODO</license>


  <!-- Url tags are optional, but mutiple are allowed, one per tag -->
  <!-- Optional attribute type can be: website, bugtracker, or repository -->
  <!-- Example: -->
  <!-- <url type="website">http://wiki.ros.org/my_stage</url> -->


  <!-- Author tags are optional, mutiple are allowed, one per tag -->
  <!-- Authors do not have to be maintianers, but could be -->
  <!-- Example: -->
  <!-- <author email="jane.doe@example.com">Jane Doe</author> -->


  <!-- The *_depend tags are used to specify dependencies -->
  <!-- Dependencies can be catkin packages or system dependencies -->
  <!-- Examples: -->
  <!-- Use build_depend for packages you need at compile time: -->
  <!--   <build_depend>message_generation</build_depend> -->
  <!-- Use buildtool_depend for build tool packages: -->
  <!--   <buildtool_depend>catkin</buildtool_depend> -->
  <!-- Use run_depend for packages you need at runtime: -->
  <!--   <run_depend>message_runtime</run_depend> -->
  <!-- Use test_depend for packages you need only for testing: -->
  <!--   <test_depend>gtest</test_depend> -->
  <buildtool_depend>catkin</buildtool_depend>
  <build_depend>roscpp</build_depend>
  <build_depend>std_msgs</build_depend>
  <run_depend>roscpp</run_depend>
  <run_depend>std_msgs</run_depend>


  <!-- The export tag contains other, unspecified, tags -->
  <export>
    <!-- Other tools can request additional information be placed here -->

  </export>
</package>
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